Stone classification | jewelry precious stones, gemstones
Posted: Nov 12, 2019
Precious stones are called minerals (mainly crystals) that do not have color or have a uniform, beautiful color, moderate tone, high transparency, high hardness (6-10 on the Mohs scale), bright luster and high ability to scatter light. At the same time, the stone must be wear-resistant, resistant to fading and exposure to moderately aggressive environments.
Such stones are high quality raw materials and are mainly used for cutting.
Ornamental stones include some transparent, translucent, translucent, and opaque crystals, mineral aggregates, rock masses, and other stone formations with various inclusions and various patterns. Ornamental stones are used both in jewelry and for the manufacture of carved products. It can be of various shapes and sizes of figures, figurines, vases, busts, massive decorative elements for facades and interior decoration of residential premises, etc...
The definition of the value of the ornamental stone is elemental, a pair that does not have clear edges. It is clear that it should cost an order of magnitude lower than gems. But take jadeite or jade as an example! Quality beads made of bright green jade, with a uniform color and rare dark spots can cost tens of thousands of dollars. Well, how then can such a stone are called ornamental?! Or a cabochon of translucent jadeite with an even grassy green color starting at $ 500 per carat?! How do you like such an ornamental stone?
Hence the conclusion - all stones can be divided into groups and importance. But in no case can one determine the value, value, relying solely on the group in which the mineral is located. IMHO.
There are many classifications of gemstones. Each has a common fundamental principle. But there are differences. Various factors influence the construction of mineral orders: fashion trends for a particular stone, demand, and development of old deposits, or discovery of new ones, etc.
Below will be given the most common classification of precious stones, which is already 30 years old, and it has been successfully used in Russia and the former USSR among amateurs and professionals.
The first group: jewelry (precious) stones, gems
First order: diamond, emerald, ruby, sapphire blue.
Second order: alexandrite, noble black opal, noble jadeite, pearls, sapphire (orange, purple and green).
Third order: aquamarine, noble spinel, demantoid, noble white and fire opal, topaz, rhodolite, adularia, red tourmaline.
Fourth order: amethyst, tourmaline (blue, green, pink and polychrome), chrysolite, zircon, beryl (yellow, golden and pink), turquoise, noble spodumene, pyrope, almandine, chrysoprase, citrine.
The second group: jewelry and ornamental, colored stones
First order: lapis lazuli, jadeite, jade, malachite, aventurine, charoite, amber, rock crystal, smoky quartz, hematite (blood).
Second order: agate, amazonite, colored chalcedony, cacholong, heliotrope, rhodonite, rose quartz, opaque iridescent feldspars (belomorite and others), iridescent obsidian, ordinary opal.
The bulk of jewelry ornamental stones are used for the manufacture of souvenirs, figurines, various kinds of crafts. And not a large percentage of such stones are used in jewelry.
Third group: ornamental stones
Jasper, written granite, petrified wood, marble onyx, obsidian, jet, jespilite, selenite, fluorite, aventurine quartzite, and colored marble.
Ornamental stones are used mainly for the manufacture of massive stone-cutting products, the size of which is tens of centimeters and above.
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