What is LNG and Where Are the Various LNG Terminals Located In India?
Posted: Sep 15, 2016
Liquefied natural gas terminal is a type of structure purposefully designed to store natural gas in its liquefied form. These structures may comprise of tanks, ships or even a building. The natural gas is liquefied to a certain degree to decrease its volume in order to transport it to distant places via sea. In general, the LNG terminals are designed to exclusively import and export LNG to various destinations.
Natural gas is a combination of hydrocarbons which in its liquefied form, has no color and odor. This LNG is then transported and stored at a temperature close to the boiling point at 160 degree C (approx.). LNG is a cold form of natural gas – largely used in heaters, stoves and electric power plants. On heating, LNG turns back to its natural form once again known as natural gas. Many countries export natural gas whereas many others import depending upon their operations. Although countries like USA are involved in both types of trading.
LNG is not suspectable to burn itself. However, it has to be combined with air in order for it to burn. Also, it will catch fire in the range of 5% to 15% volume concentrations in air. These combustible liquid can burn explosively in confined space. As LNG is cryogenic in nature, physical contact or exposure to it, may give rise to personnel and equipment hazards.
What is the need of liquefaction?
Liquefied natural gas is condensed to a little fraction under liquefaction. Liquefaction decreases the volume of natural gas making it easy to transport. LNG contains a certain amount of flammable material which makes it extremely dangerous, if not handled with care.
The actual constitution of LNG varies based on its source as well as on the liquefaction process, but in nearly all cases the key component will be methane with little percentages of the heavier hydrocarbons such as ethane, butane, propane, and pentane. Additionally, small quantities of nitrogen might be present. However for transfer of LNG when accurate estimation of the heating value and density is needed, the specific properties based on actual analysis must be estimated.
In general, there are primarily four LNG terminals in India located at Maharashtra with the name RGPPL LNG Terminal, Dahej Terminal at Gujarat, Hazira Terminal at Gujarat and Petronet LNG at Kochi. At the same time, many are under construction in the country including Pipavav LNG Terminal(APM Terminals), Mundra LNG Terminal, Ennore LNG Terminal Ltd.
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