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Human Services

Author: Janet Peter
by Janet Peter
Posted: Mar 19, 2019
classical conditioni

My current client, Mr. John has been suffering from unremitting tardiness. He says that he is not certain of the duration the problem has been going on but noticed that it was resulting in an issue about three years ago. He explains that he is persistently late for appointments, work, and family events, in addition to even picking up as well as dropping the kids off to school. John assets that he would like to liberate of the problem since it is resulting into many tribulations (Dixon-Gordon, et al., 2014). His tardiness has resulted in him being scolded at work, censured by his children’s school, as well as being forced to suspend appointments. On occasions he posits he can be 20 to 30 minutes late for anything. On the occasion he is meant to attend family procedures, he can be even later than that. Classical conditioning may perhaps elucidate how Mr. John reinforced the condition. In the classical conditioning he ought to be an incentive that motivates the individual to react in an explicit way, which we refer to as an unconditioned stimulus (Hartley, Sikora & McCoy, 2008).

The reaction to the US referred to as an unconditioned reaction or UR. When I asked Mr. John to enlighten me diminutive regarding the previous years of his life when he thinks the condition may have started. He explains of that a preceding job he had. He quit this job roughly three years ago as a result of some impediments with the employer along with the devoid of teamwork in the office. He greatly desired to be at home with his family. He was at all times very stressed out from work he could barely enjoy being at home. Thus, he decided to leave and do just that, enjoy family. He says that there was a large amount of work expected from him with very little help from the rest of the staff Moreover his boss refused to change anything. Among the things that expected of him was that he was to open the office on a daily basis and half an hour earlier than the rest of the other staff was to be there (Sigre-Leirós, Carvalho & Nobre, 2013). He could have to open the office, prepare the days schedules, and take care of all the telephone messages before opening the door to start the day with patients.

He expressed it was a tremendous amount of work to do in such little time it often overwhelmed him with stress and exhausted before the day even begins. He recalls not being to sleep some nights thinking about the stress he would have to endure the next morning. John additionally understands that no matter how superior the job that he did it would never be recognized by his leadership either. His UR is anxiety, stress as well as exhaustion (Popovi?, & Popovi?, 2014). In the end, he argues that as well as early or else on time is as a result of the habituated inducement or else CS. The habituated reaction was anxiety, stress, along with fatigue. He is erudite that via classical conditioning, association to being early or else anxious, on time to stress in addition to exhaustion no matter the event he was to be present. He desired to avoid the thoughts, thus being late (McLeod, 2007).

Operant Conditioning can additionally offer details in relation to my client’s conduct. Primarily we have to establish should there exist stimulants or else punishers so as to concern his undesired conduct in relation to being extremely slow-moving continually. The reinforcer possibly will be an incentive that introduce after the preferred behavior for encouraging the behavior. The retaliatory is an inducement that is set up for the behavior in order to dishearten the behavior (Morris & Maisto, 2104). Mr. John progresses with his story positing that in the direction of the end of his time with his previous employer, he started to develop what he referred to as a "bad attitude." My customer asserts that, they expected alto of work from his in addition to so little appreciation. On one occasion day, he overslept and was in a rush to be at work. He arrived about 45 minutes late from his start time. When he arrived, some of the other staff was there, and they had already begun some of Ms. Asher’s morning work.

He noticed how smoothly his day went when he didn’t have all the pressures of starting on the day with himself with too much to do. He began leaving work a little bit later than usual, arriving a little later, and then he would take his time doing his morning work. He stopped rushing around to get everything done so quickly. Now John always did his work appropriately but just took a little supplementary time to do things. It seemed not merely to lessen His stress along with anxiety but forced a number of the other staff to help him finish up things before the initial round of clients were suitable to come in (McLeod, 2007). Thus, he was unrelenting to come later and later. The staff helping, coupled with less stress along with anxiety became his motivators. It explains the reason it persisted. John learned that via being late, he received additional benefits than when on time. It thus can explain the reason he continues to be late to dealings today. You possibly will in addition use operant conditioning to alter the client’s behavior of being late. You could use an approach called shaping. Shaping entails strengthening successful approximations of the preferred behavior (Pettersson, et al., 2014).

For instance, initially we will begin out via setting an alarm clock for Mr. John. On the occasion he gets up on time, he will be rewarded using something he likes. Subsequently, we might confront him to be dressed furthermore groomed by the next hour, he will reward. The procedure will carry on until he willingly does something on time that is in point of fact time dependent. Working from the foundation, simple things, plenty of time, grand rewards to finally being in time for proceedings that are normally hard for him (McLeod, 2007).

Cognitive in addition to social learning theories can assist in explaining the diligence of john’s behavior. Cognitive learning encompasses the intellectual processes that proceed inside us while we are learning. We penetrate theoretical concepts like conditioning along with strengthening our memory. It is contingent on behavior. As John was late, he stored the information in his memory all the help he got from the other staff as well as via about how good it felt to have help furthermore feel less stress (Deisseroth, 2014). Latent learning encompasses the learning that is kind in the sponsor of your mind pending some motivator placed it into action. My client must have recognized his co-workers could do the simple errands for him in the morning obligation owing to forever being in charge of those everyday jobs.

The realization that they were very competent was dormant in his mind until the morning he was late. He placed all the information together in that if he is late, his co-workers can make up the work, that becoming the motivator (Evans, Slane & Boomer, 2014). Noticing the connection was an unexpected insight. Preceding this insight the client could have had a sense of educated helplessness. Each morning he conducted his customary routine feeling he had no management over his state of affairs. He began to act in a helpless manner whereby he overlooked the occasion for change.

Changing the Maladaptive Behavior

Subsequent to the review of the treatment alternatives, Mr. John determined to get his wife involved. He brought her for the subsequent appointment. Jointly they choose to go for treatment by means of operant conditioning. There will be the employment an optimistic reinforcement to optimistically augment the likelihood of a behavior of becoming in time. His wife has approved to help. Mr. John loves to shop (Sigre-Leirós, Carvalh & Nobre, 2013). His wife does not endorse of lighthearted spending as well as often does not support of shopping sprees. Not wanting to dissatisfy his wife in addition to since money is a diminutive tight with him not working; shopping is going to be an uncommon commodity for him. In the next 60 days, Mr. John has approximate 60 engagements to get. They include doctor appointments, dropping his kids off to school every morning, kids after school dealings, a few family events (Pettersson, et al., 2014). By means of a positive motivator on a set ratio basis, Mr. John is being offered $10 for every event his wife is on time for towards his shopping trip. On the occasion, he gets to each event on time he will earn approximately $ 600. It is a noteworthy amount to him. The design is for the client to augment the prospect of repeating the behavior, being on time owing to the positive motivator. Ultimately the hopes are he will carry on to be on time even when the motivator not offered, thus learning a new behavior to the stimulus (Dixon-Gordon, et al., 2014).

References

Deisseroth, K. (2014). Circuit dynamics of adaptive and maladaptive behaviour. Nature, 505(7483), 309-317. doi:10.1038/nature12982

Dixon-Gordon, K., Chapman, A., Weiss, N., & Rosenthal, M. (2014). A Preliminary Examination of the Role of Emotion Differentiation in the Relationship Between Borderline Personality and Urges for Maladaptive Behaviors. Journal Of Psychopathology & Behavioral Assessment, 36(4), 616-625. doi:10.1007/s10862-014-9423-4

Evans, D. W., Kleinpeter, F. L., Slane, M. M., & Boomer, K. B. (2014). Adaptive and Maladaptive Correlates of Repetitive Behavior and Restricted Interests in Persons with Down Syndrome and Developmentally-Matched Typical Children: A Two-Year Longitudinal Sequential Design. Plos ONE, 9(4), 1-9. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0093951

Hartley, S. L., Sikora, D. M., & McCoy, R. (2008). Prevalence and risk factors of maladaptive behaviour in young children with Autistic Disorder. Journal Of Intellectual Disability Research, 52(10), 819-829. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2788.2008.01065.x

McLeod, S (2007). B.F. Skinner Operant Conditioning Simply Psychology.

Morris & Maisto (2104). Understanding Psychology Tenth Edition. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education.

Pettersson, E., Mendle, J., Turkheimer, E., Horn, E. E., Ford, D. C., Simms, L. J., & Clark, L. A. (2014). Do Maladaptive Behaviors Exist at One or Both Ends of Personality Traits?. Psychological Assessment, 26(2), 433-446. doi:10.1037/a0035587

Popovi?, N., Caballero-Bleda, M., & Popovi?, M. (2014). Post-Training Scopolamine Treatment Induced Maladaptive Behavior in Open Field Habituation Task in Rats. Plos ONE, 9(6), 1-4. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0100348

Sigre-Leirós, V. L., Carvalho, J., & Nobre, P. (2013). Early Maladaptive Schemas and Aggressive Sexual Behavior: A Preliminary Study with Male College Students. Journal Of Sexual Medicine, 10(7), 1764-1772. doi:10.1111/j.1743-6109.2012.02875.x

Carolyn Morgan is the author of this paper. A senior editor at Melda Research in custom research paper service if you need a similar paper you can place your order for a custom research paper from nursing writing services.

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