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Research Design

Author: Janet Peter
by Janet Peter
Posted: May 09, 2019
research method

Introduction

In this chapter, it explains the methodology and the research method of the study. The research methods and the designs are the procedures that encompass decisions from the theories to specific methods of data collection. The primary aim of the study is investigating how employee involvement in decision-making related to goal achievement.

Research Design

The study is an investigation on how employee involvement in decision-making tends to influence goal achievement. Creswell (2014) claims that the choice of the research method is normally determined by what the researcher is seeking to learn. Researchers usually have three research methods to select from including quantitative, qualitative, and the mixed method when conducting a study. The researcher tends to explore the contingencies of their studies before they can decide to use a certain research method. The choice of a research method normally depends on the purpose of the study, type of data used, and also the method that is used in analyzing the data (Frels & Onwuegbuzie 2013). So that to obtain detailed and varied data in this study, the researcher will use mixed research design where both quantitative and qualitative research concepts, methods, and approaches are combined in a single study so that to offer complementary information on this phenomenon. The main purpose of the study is exploring the relationship of employee involvement in decision-making and goal achievement. Thus, the study adopts the mixed research method of data collection analysis and presented. The mixed research method does aim to minimize the weaknesses and draw from the strengths of quantitative or qualitative research methodology.

The mixed research method normally includes numbers-based aspects of quantitative research and the qualitative technique to analyze data (Leedy & Ormod, 2013). A qualitative approach tends to allow the researcher to learn more about the involvement of employees through extensive data derived from the key respondents. With the qualitative research approach, the researcher can obtain feedback from the participants through questions allowing for a better understanding of this phenomenon (Frels & Onwuegbuzie 2013). The quantitative approach normally uses statistical correlation in the effort of explaining how the variables interact so that to document what happens. It uses a hypothesis statement to describe a situation with objective data and numbers.

The reason for the mixed research method was to add credibility and validity to the findings of the research. A major a benefit of using mixed research method is that it offers the possibility of triangulation, which involves the use of several methods to examine the same phenomenon (Mayoh & Onwuegbuzie 2013). With triangulation, it normally allows one to identify particular aspects of a phenomenon more accurately through approaching it from different points using different techniques and methods. Triangulation is a device for enhancing credibility and persuasiveness of the research account. Additionally, it helps in eliminating any bias that is faced by a single method when performing research.

Appropriateness of Design

The main aim of using the mixed research method is because quantitative and qualitative data are essential for understanding employee involvement in decision-making and goal achievement. The method makes it possible to have a better understanding of the research problem through bringing together certain details from the qualitative data and the numeric trends from the quantitative data (Creswell, 2014).

The mixed research method is also appropriate for the study because it allows data obtained through using one approach to be used so that to inform the collection of complementary data using a different approach. For instance, from the findings obtained from qualitative data, I will be able to identify and select particular themes that need to be validated and verified. That will be done through the use of follow up quantitative questionnaires. In doing this, it will be possible to gain insights and understanding I may have missed when just a single method was used; hence, leading to even stronger evidence for the conclusion. The use of the quantitative method tends to allow the study to be guarded against any potential pitfalls of the subjectivity of judgment (Frels & Onwuegbuzie 2013). That means that the conclusions drawn from the quantitative research approach are more objective rather than subjective. The information that will be obtained from the qualitative data will help to validate the information from the quantitative analysis.

The use of combining qualitative and quantitative research methods will help ensure that the research addresses the issues of validity. The reason for using the two approaches is so that to compensate for the inadequacies and benefits from the advantage of the two approaches. Employing a range of methodological strategies means that the researcher does not essentially privilege a certain way of looking at the social world. Mayoh & Onwuegbuzie (2013) claims with the two methods they each have distinctive characteristics that tend to make the possibility of combining them attractive. Additionally, the reason for considering the mixed research method is because the qualitative research is usually considered as an inductive approach for developing theories that should be tested deductively through the quantitative models. According to Bryman & Bell (2011), combining both the quantitative and qualitative data collection does allow for a comprehensive analysis of the research question. The qualitative research is significant in building hypotheses that should be tested through the quantitative research strategy (Bryman & Bell 2011).

Procedure

The research will adopt both qualitative and quantitative method. In conducting the study, it will include the employee at the managerial level and those below the managerial level. Therefore, I will seek the approval to conduct this research from the management of the organization. The procedure for obtaining individual permission from each participant will also be sought through sending emails to employees and requesting them to be involved in the research study. The appointment for participating in the research activities will be scheduled to take place in a designated room in companies where employees are working, and the participants will be requested to indicate the day and time when they will be available to do the interviews. The selected participants will be encouraged to participate for the sake of the validity of the study and for the opportunity of gaining new knowledge in regards to the content of focus of this study.

So that to ensure that the appropriate information is collected from the participants, the participants will be free to make decisions on whether to participate in the study without any undue coercion. The unbiased experience of the participants in essential when conducting a study in determining the accuracy of the information received (Boblin et al., 2013). Another important factor to be considered in conducting the study is the approval from the Institutional Review Board. The Institutional Review Board has to approve all the aspects of the study before the project can start.

The Role of the Researcher

In both qualitative and quantitative research, the researcher tends to manage the process, conduct data collection, and present the findings. A key role of the researcher is being the main data collection instrument which is a role relating directly to the type of instrument used and also the procedures outlined in the research plan. The researcher also has the role of ascertaining the presence of bias and taking the necessary steps to minimize all preconceptions that can affect data collection and data analysis (Mealer & Jones, 2014). As the researcher in completing this study, I tend to assume the responsibility for recruiting the study participants, collecting the data, completing the study analysis, and reporting the findings of this study. When preparing to collect data, it will be essential to eliminate bias; therefore, I will make sure that I set aside any preconceptions regarding the aspect of employee involvement in decision-making and goal achievement (Anderson, 2010). Bias can be considered as the influence of a particular background, culture, and the experience that can influence external and personal views.

Personal bias may happen when the researcher does rely on personal judgment versus the reliance on data collected to present the findings (Boblin et al., 2013). Personal bias is a great risk when using interviews in data collection because of the reliance on personal interaction with the participants. Therefore, as a researcher, I plan to mitigate personal bias through having an understanding of the presence of personal lens related to my views and work experiences. In doing this, it will facilitate an objective interpretation of the information. When conducting the interviews, I plan to establish an interview protocol so that to make sure that each study participant is treated the same and also to mitigate bias. I will consider introducing myself and notifying the participants that I will take notes and also audiotape the interview during the interview sessions. The use of this rational will help to stay within the bounds of the research interview process that I will design (Anderson, 2010). I will need to obtain ethical approval from the school Institutional Review Board before I can engage research participants and before collection of data. The approval from the IRB board tends to demonstrate awareness of the ethical treatment of participants.

Part 2

Research Questions

The research questions that will guide the study include:

Research Question 1: How does employee involvement in decision-making predict goals achievement?

Research Question 2: What is the effect of employee involvement in decision-making on the achievement of goals?

Research Question 3: How can project management personnel use employee involvement to ensure goal achievement?

Hypotheses

The following hypotheses will be tested:

H01: There is no significant relationship between employee involvement in decision-making and achievement of project management goals.

HA1: There is a significant relationship between employee involvement in decision-making and the achievement of project management goals.

H02: Employee involvement in decision-making negatively affects goals achievement.

HA2: Employee involvement in decision making positively affect goals achievement.

H03: Project management personnel cannot use employee involvement to ensure effective goal achievement

HA3: Project management personnel can use employee involvement to ensure effective goal achievement

Population

The research population refers to the target participants that the researcher is planning to use for the investigation. A researcher usually needs participants so that to collect data. Selecting the correct participants for the study is a decisive stage in any research (Bryman & Bell 2011). In conducting this study, the population will consist of individuals working in management level and subordinates. In conducting this study, the study will consider a telecommunication company with its various departments. The population will include the entire staff of the telecommunication company which has a total of 900 employees. The purpose of conducting the study in this organization is to examine how employee involvement in decision-making related to goal achievement. It tends to be extremely hard for the researcher to get hold of the entire population of interest. Consequently, sampling frame does describe the exact area or the department to be selected for this study.

Sample

From a population of 900 employees, the selected sample will include 100 participants. The sample population will include employees in the management levels and subordinate employees. With this sample, it will be possible to collect information from subordinates on their view regarding employee involvement in decision-making and the effect on goal achievement. The managers will also involve in the study as they will help to indicate how involving employees affect goal achievement and also provide data on the significance and how they use employee involvement. With this sample, it will help collect the necessary data to help come to a conclusion on the topic. The relationship between the participants and the researcher is vital to the success of a research study of this nature. Therefore, it will be vital to developing a good relationship with the participants so that to collect the relevant data.

Carolyn Morgan is the author of this paper. A senior editor at Melda Research in

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Janet Peter

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