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Geography Concept

Author: Danu Aji
by Danu Aji
Posted: Jun 27, 2019
surface earth

Understanding of Geography

The term Geography comes from Greek geo which means earth and graphien which means imaging. Geography is science that describes everything that is on the surface of the earth. Definition of geography according to experts:

a. Karl Ritter Geography is the study of different regions on the earth's surface (differential area) in its diversity.

b. Finch C. Vernor Geography is a study that explains, explains an area on the surface of the earth accompanied by its analysis. It does not only highlight certain phenomena, but also pay attention to the changes and dynamics that take place on it.

c. Elsworth Huntington Geography is the study of nature and its distribution through the relationship between environment and activity (human quality).

d. Bintarto Geography is a study that studies the causal relationship of symptoms on the surface of the earth and events that occur on the surface of the earth. Physical studies and those that cover living things and their problems. The study was carried out through a spatial, ecological, and regional approach to the interests, processes and success of the program.

e. Indonesian Geography Association (IGI) Geography is the study of knowledge that studies the similarities and differences of the geosphere through environmental and territorial approaches in the spatial context.

Geography Concepts and Examples

The concept of Geography as spatial science

Geography is an integrative field of science that studies symptoms on the face of the earth (in physical dimensions and human dimensions) using spatial perspective (spatial perpective).

1. Geography as a spatial science studies how and why a natural or artificial phenomenon can differ from one place to another on earth. The discipline is concerned with the use of the earth space. The study of spatial variation, of how-and why-things differ from place to place on the surface of the earth. 1b).

Example / Illustration:

There are different types of land between regions A and B. Besides that the dominant landforms between the two regions are different. Different types of land and landscapes between the two regions are caused by different natural phenomena.

The concept of Geography as idiographic science

Idiographic means reviewing / describing things rigidly / in detail. 2) Geography as an idiographic science whose object includes the geosphere means to examine the atmosphere, hydrosphere, pedosphere, and anthroposphere in detail.

Example / Illustration:

A geographer can explain in detail about Enggano Island, one of the small islands in Indonesia, both its relative and absolute location as well as its weather, land, and population density. One contribution from the application of this concept is mapping.

The concept of Geography as a nomothetic science

Nomotics means finding propositions, theories, laws based on order that occur in nature. Geography as a nomothetic science means finding distinct patterns based on phenomena that occur on the surface of the earth. The hypothesis of a phenomenon is then tested, then a theory and model are built. 3)

Example / Illustration:

The frequency of settlements in villages is less than in the city. The density level has a distinctive pattern, which is more compact towards the city center.

The concept of spatial interaction

The movement (e.g., of people, goods, information) between different places of independence between different geographic location or areas. 4) The conditions for spatial interactions are: i. Complementarity ii. Transfersability iii. There is no third party that mediates between interacting parties (direct interaction).

Example / Illustration:

The occurrence of exports - imports of industrial raw materials between Indonesia and Japan. The interaction was carried out directly by the two countries. The cooperation will be even smoother if the commodity transfer path runs smoothly.

The Concept of Environmental Determinism

Environmental determinism is the belief that the physical environment is exclusively shapes humans, their actions, and their thoughts. 5) The natural environment is decisive / affects humans and their lives.

Example / Illustration:

Extreme natural conditions (very dry, very cold, very erratic climates, very heavy reliefs) like those on the African continent make the lives of its inhabitants seem to depend on 'natural mercy'.

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Author: Danu Aji
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Danu Aji

Member since: Jun 26, 2019
Published articles: 42

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