Types and Classification of Dental Implants
Posted: Jul 29, 2019
In dentistry, different implant types are used. They are available as one-piece and two-piece systems and in various forms such as cylinders, needles, steps, cones, hollow cylinders or cones. The dentist chooses an individually fitting implant model for each patient.
WHICH IMPLANT FORMS ARE AVAILABLE?
The oral surgeon inserts dental implants directly into the jawbone. Today, implants differ mainly in shape and surface texture. The dentist has the choice between different implant forms.
Leaf implants, disk implants and needle implants were formerly used more often, but are now rarely or no longer used. In addition, non-threaded cylinder implants are used that maintain their primary stability through a special interference fit. Primary stability arises solely through the clamping action of the implant in the jawbone. Even step-shaped implants, either as a cylinder or screw implant, are used in dentistry. Conical implants such as screw implants or staged cylinder implants are also used. The screw implants have self-tapping or pre-cut threads and therefore also have good primary stability. As a rule, these are self-tapping threads in which the thread is also cut into the jawbone at the same time as the implant is screwed in.
Most implants have a screw shape. These differ in width, length and thread profile. Implants are made of different materials and they come in different sizes. To distinguish are:
>> Quick implants:
Are used in just one session immediately after the tooth removal in the jawbone and supplied with dentures. The prerequisites are sufficient bone supply and the primary stability of the rapid implants.
>> Narrow implants (reduced diameter implants):
Small dental implants that are used in the anterior region, in horizontal reduction of the jawbone, in full dentures and other complicated dentures.
>> Interim Implants:
Very thin dental implants introduced as a transition to immediate care (during the healing phase of the final implant). They are easy to insert and remove.
>> Tilting Implants:
Narrow, beveled implants, which are used with a small amount of bone and thus offer many advantages (including bypassing the bone structure)
>> Conical implants:
Come in use with a low bone supply in the upper jaw and low bone density. This type of implant is usually used as a screw implant.
>> Ultra-short implants:
The short length and the large diameter provide better load distribution in difficult anatomical conditions (for example, if the posterior region of the upper and lower jaw is characterized by severe bone loss).
Are used in the use of full dentures, bridges, in orthodontics and as interim dentures. They are characterized by a smaller diameter and a one-piece construction.
The diameter of the implants used in the jaw is usually between 3.3 and 5 millimeters. The lengths are approximately the size of 8 to 15 millimeters and depend on the bone supply. In addition, the length is determined according to the entire implant situation and the jaw condition of the respective patient. If there is enough bone, shorter implants are often enough.
According to Kopp Dental & Associates, costs for implants vary depending on medical expenses and also the materials used play a role here. Legal health insurance companies do not pay the costs for an implant treatment, since this is purely a private service. However, part of the costs can be covered by supplementary insurance.
WHICH IMPLANT SYSTEMS ARE AVAILABLE?
There is the one-piece and the two-part implant system. There is also a distinction between immediate and late implants. The one-piece system has been widely used in the past and consists of only one part. After insertion, the implant head projects out of the mucosa, often causing problems in the healing phase. In the two-part system, an implant is implanted in the bone. Then the implant neck and implant crown are screwed on. In implant systems today, the two- or multi-part implant system has prevailed over the one-piece. The implant parts screwed together prevent, in contrast to the one-piece system, that the implant is loaded during the healing period.
CONSTRUCTION OF DENTAL IMPLANTS
A dental implant consists of the implant body, the implant neck and the implant crown. The implant body is inserted or fixed in the jawbone. The implant neck protrudes from the jawbone and the implant crown eventually replaces the lost tooth.
WHAT MATERIALS ARE USED?
Imlantates are almost always made of titanium. Titanium has good mechanical and static properties compared to other metals. Titan offers advantages such as:
- Flexural strength
- Compressive strength
- Tensile strength
Titanium makes implants stable and withstands later chewing loads. As an alternative implants are made of ceramic, because this substance is well tolerated by the body. However, ceramic implants are considered less durable and stable than titanium implants.
THE ADVANTAGES OF IMPLANTS
Thanks to modern manufacturing processes and professional treatment methods in dentistry, implants represent a complete replacement for lost teeth. It does not matter where in the jaw a tooth is missing. In terms of function and aesthetics, implants are virtually indistinguishable from real teeth. The quality of life of patients is increased enormously with implants.
THE TOLERABILITY OF DENTAL IMPLANTS
Modern implants are used in the jawbone to stay there long term. For this reason, today's implantologists are increasingly using highly compatible materials that the body can absorb well.
Biocompatible materials with high strength are in the foreground. Dental implants are therefore usually made of pure titanium or titanium alloys. The use of titanium implants is less likely to produce allergic or repulsive reactions.
WHAT ALTERNATIVES ARE THERE TO IMPLANTS?
Not every patient wants an implant treatment. In order to integrate new teeth into the jaw there are classical alternative possibilities to the implants. These are, for example, removable dentures such as partial or full dentures and the supply of bridges. Combinations of both are possible.
Imon is a freelance writer. He likes to write on health & food related topics.