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Spermatophyta : Definition, Example, Image, Type, Characteristics, Classification

Author: Danu Aji
by Danu Aji
Posted: Dec 01, 2019
seed plants

[/ul]Spermatophyta characteristic

  • Seed plants have more complex sporophyte generation than mosses and nails. Breeding tools are found in the organ of flowers (a collection of sporophils) or in the form of strobilus. Meanwhile, in spikes, sporophyll groups do not form flowers.
  • Male sex cells (gametes) are in pollen and female gametes are in the embryonic sac. The process of combining male gamete cells (sperm) and female gamete cells (egg cells) takes place through a pollen reed. Therefore, Spermatophyta is also called Siphonogama Embryophyta.
  • Seed plants can be clearly distinguished from the roots, stems and leaves.
  • Its body is composed of many cells or is multicellular in nature with a large or macroscopic body size and has a variety of heights.
  • Seed plants have a varied network of vessels and consist of phloem whose function is to bring food from the leaves to the whole body of the plant, and xylem which functions to transport water and minerals from the soil.
  • In general, seed plants (except parasitic plants) are autotrophic or can synthesize their own food through photosynthesis. Therefore, seed plants are photoautotrophic organisms.
  • Most seed plants have habitat on land such as mangoes, rambutans, and guavas. There are also seed plants that live floating on the water such as water hyacinth.
  • Seed plants reproduce asexually or sexually.
  • [/ul]Spermatophyta body structure as follows:

  • Root
  • [/ol]Seedlings can be either woody or watery stems. Stems in seed plants can be modified into stolons, rhizomes, and tubers. Stem cells differentiate into epidermis, cortex, and central cylinder (there are xylem and phloem).

  • Leaf
  • [/ul]In its life cycle there are several stages, including:

    Gametogenesis, namely the formation of gametes (sex cells). Occur in the flower section.

    Pollination (Pollination), ie the fall / adherence of pollen to the pistil's head (to Angiosperms) or adhering to pollen on the ovaries (Gymnosperms).

    Type of Pollination:

    Based on pollen origin

  • Autogamy (self-pollination) is when pollen comes from the same flower (one flower). If the flowers haven't bloomed, it's called kleistogamy.
  • Geitonogami (pollinating neighbors) if pollen comes from other flowers but is still one individual.
  • Alogamy (xerogamy) or cross pollination, that is when pollen comes from other individuals but is still in one type.
  • Bastar (hibridogami), which is when pollen comes from another type.
  • [/ul]

    Feature: flowers that are not able to pollinate themselves. This is because the stamens or pistils do not mature together. Protandri, i.e. if the stamens cook earlier than the pistil. Protogeny, i.e. if the pistil cooks before the stamens.

    Fertilization (fertilization), which is the process of fusion of male gametes (sperm) with female gametes (ovums).

    After pollination, sperm move towards the egg through the pollen reed, then the fusion of the egg nucleus and sperm nucleus occurs in the ovule. Ovula is a sporophyte structure containing female megasporangium and gametophyte. Fertilization between male and female gametes will produce embryos (institutions).

    Based on that event, seed plants are also called embryophyta siphonogama, which are plants that have embryos and their mating takes place through the formation of a feather. Embryos in seed plants are bipolar (dwipolar), because at one pole they will grow and develop to form stems and leaves, while other poles form a root system.

    There are 2 types of fertilization in seed plants:

    Single fertilization (fertilization that occurs once fertilization), namely the fusion of male gametes and female gametes that produce embryos. Occurs in Gymnosperms.

    Dual fertilization (fertilization that occurs twice fertilization), namely:

    fusion of sperm nucleus> embryo.

    fusion of sperm nuclei>

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    Author: Danu Aji
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    Danu Aji

    Member since: Jun 26, 2019
    Published articles: 42

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