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Computer Fundamental || What Is Computer || History Of Computer || The Generations Of Computer?

Author: Milan Milan
by Milan Milan
Posted: Jul 22, 2020

what is computerA computer is an electronic device which is capable is receiving of information (data) in a particular from and of performing a sequence of operations in accordance with a predetermined but variable set of procedural intramural (program) to produce a result in the form of information or signals.

History of computer

The history of computer of computing is longer then the history of computer hardware and modern computing technology and includes the history of methods intended for pen and paper or for chalk and slate, with or without the aid of tables.

computing is intimately tied to the representation of numbers. But long before abstraction like the number arise, there were mathematical concepts to serve the purses of civilization. These compact include one-to-one correspondence (the basic of computing ), COMPRESSING ta a standard ( used of measurement) and the 3-4-5 right triangle (A device for assuring a right angle). today this was the first known computer and most advanced system of calculation known to data -preceding Greek methods by 2,000 years. The first decoded idea of using digital electronics for computing was the 1931 paper "The Used of Thyratrons for high speed Automatic computing of physical phenomena" by C.E Wynn -Williams. then Claude Shannon;s 1938 paper "A Symbols Analysis of Relay and Switching circuits"then introduced the idea of using electronic for Boolean algebraic operations.

The generation of computerit use to be quite popular to refer to computers as belonging to one of several "generations" of computer. these generation are:-

the first generations (1943-1958):this generation is often described as starting with the delivery of the first commercial computer to a business client.The happened in 1951 with the delivery of the UNIVAC to the us Bureau of the census. This generation lasted until abut the end of the 1950's (although some stayed in operation much longer then that) The main defining feature of the first generation of computers was that vacuum tubes were used as internal computer components.Vacuum tubes are gnarly abut 5-10 centimetres is light and the larger numbers of them required in computers resulted in huge and extremely expensive machine that often broke down (as tubes failed ).

the second generation (1959-1964):in the mid -1950 's Bell labs developed the transistor. Transistor were capable of the same tasks as vacuum tubes but were only a fraction of the size. Th first transistor -based computer was product in 1959. Transistors were not only smaller, enabling computer size to be recused, but they were faster, more relabel and consumed lass electricity.

The other main improvement of the envelopment of computer languages. assemble languages or symbolic languages allowed programmer to specify instruction in world (albeit very cryptic word ) witch were then translated into a from that the machine cloud understand (typically series of 0's and 1,s binary code) Higher level language also came into being during this period. Whereas assemble language had a one -to one correspondence between there symbols and actual machine functions, higher -level languages developed during this period (FORTRAN and COBOL) are still in use today though in a much more developed from.

the third generation(1965-1970):

in 1965 the first integrated circuit(IC) was developed in witch compete circuit of hundred of components were able to place on a single silicon chip 2 or 3 mm square.computers using these IC,s soon repleted transistor based machine. Again, one of the major advantages was size, with computers becoming more powerful and at the same time much smaller and chipper. computers thus become accessible ta much larger audiences. An added advantage of smaller size is that electronic signals have much shorter distances to travel and speed of computer increased.

Another feature of the period is computer software become much more powerful and flexible and for the first time more then one program cloud shear the computers resources at the same time (multi-tasking ). the majority of programming language used today are often referred to as 3GL's (3rd generation language ) event thought some of them originate during the 2nd generation.

the forth generation(1971-present):

The boundary between the third and forth generation is not very clear-cut at all. most of the developments since the mid 1960,s can be seen as part of a continuum of gradual miniaturization. in 1970 large-scale integration was achieved achieved where the equivalent of thousands of circuits were crammed onto a single silicon chip.This development gain increased computer prominence (especially reliably and speed ) whilst reducing computer size and cost. Around this time the first complete general purpose microprocessor become available on a single chip. in 1975 very large scale integration (VLSI) took the process one step fetcher. complete computer center processor cloud now be built into one chip. The microprocessor was born. such chips are far more powerful than ENIAC and are only about 1cm square whilst ENIAC filled a large building.

During this period fourth generation language( 4GL's ) have came into existence.Such language are a step further removed for the computer hardware in that they us language much like nature language can be described as 4GL'S. They are generally much easier to learn then are 3GL'S.

the fifth generation(the future)

The "fifth generation " of computer were deferment by the japanese government in 1980 when they unveiled an optimistic ten-year plan to produce the next generation of computer. This was an interesting plan for tow reasons. Firstly, it is not at all really clear what the forth generation is,or even whether the third generation hes finished yet. secondly it was an attempt to define a generation of computer before they had come into existence.The main requirement of the 5G machine was that they incorporate the feature of Artificial intelligence, Export systems and natural language. The goal was to product machine that are cable of performing tasks in similar ways to humans, are capable of learning, and are capable of inter forming with hymens in natural language and preferably using both speech input (speech recognition )and speech output (speech synthesis ).such goals are obviously of interest to linguists and speech scientist an nature language and speech processing are key components of the definition. As you may have groused, this goal has not yet been fully realized, although significant progress has been made towards various aspect of these goals.

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Computer Fundamental || What Is Computer || History Of Computer || The Generations Of Computer

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Author: Milan Milan

Milan Milan

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