Various types of cement and their uses
Posted: Jan 30, 2021
Cement is one of the most versatile and useful materials in construction projects out there. The multitude of applications and sustainability that it can provide during the lifetime of a construction project allows it to be a material of the utmost importance.Cement is primarily characterized into two types:-
The cement which hardens in the presence of water because of a process called "Hydration" (The chemical reaction that occurs between cement and water ). This type of cement is also preferred for construction near water sources as it can also harden underwater. Portland cement is one of the best examples of hydraulic cement.
Non Hydraulic cement:
The cement which doesn’t tend to harden underwater is referred to as non-hydraulic cement. This type of cement only hardens when it comes in contact with the atmospheric carbon dioxide (also known as carbonation process). This cement is highly resistant to attack from various chemicals once it has properly set. Non-hydraulic cement is generally manufactured using non-hydraulic lime, gypsum plasters and oxychloride, which possesses some liquid properties.
According to the materials used during manufacturing, we can create upto 14 different types of cement. They are as follows14 Different types of cement :-1. Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC):
This is the most common type of cement which is extensively used in almost all construction projects in one form or the other. It provides good resistance against cracking and dry shrinkage but it is less resistant to chemical attack than PPC. OPC is not suitable for construction work where the project is subjected to being exposed to the sulphates in the soil.
Ordinary Portland cement is available in the following grades: 33 grade, 43 grade & 53 grade.2. Rapid Hardening cement:
Rapid hardening cement is very similar to the ordinary Portland cement (OPC) variant of cement. The early strength of the cement is achieved by adding excessive C3S into the mix and by lowering the amount of C2S from the final mixture. As the name itself suggests, this type of cement is used in cases where there is a need for high early strength.
The overall strength of Rapid Hardening cement 3 days after pouring is almost the same as the strength achieved by Ordinary Portland cement in 7 days.3. Low heat portland cement: –
This type of cement is manufactured by lowering the amount of Tricalcium silicate (C3S) and increasing the amount of Dicalcium silicate (C2S). It possesses comparatively less compressive strength than that achieved by Ordinary Portland cement. This variant of cement is mostly used in the construction of retaining walls and avoided while building thin concrete structures.4. Sulphate Resisting Portland Cement:-
It is manufactured by limiting the percentage of Tricalcium aluminate (C3A) below 5% in the total mix. This type of cement is heavily used where the structure is prone to severe sulphate attacks (in alkaline conditions) such as construction on top of the foundation of soil, sea or marine conditions, sewage treatment tanks.5. High alumina Cement:-
This variant of cement has rich alumina content (about 35% of the total mix) which helps in bestowing it with ridiculously high strength within a short period. This type of cement is preferred for use where the structures are subjected to the actions of sea water, chemical plants and furnaces.6. Blast furnace slag cement:-
This variant of cement is cheaper than Ordinary Portland cement. It is manufactured by intergrinding OPC clinkers with the blast furnace slag. Because of this mixture, blast furnace slag cement develops low heat of hydration and as a result has less early strength.7. Coloured Cement:-
This type of cement is also commonly referred to as "Colcrete". It is manufactured by adding some coloring pigment to the OPC variant of cement. It is used for the purpose of joining tiles.8. Pozzolana cement :-
The pozzolana is a material that is formed as a result of volcanic eruptions. It is a siliceous material composed of about 80% clay. Pozzolana cement is manufactured by mixing about 30% of pozzolana materials with Ordinary Portland cement clinkers. This type of cement is generally used in the construction of dams and weirs (low head dams).9. Air-entraining cement:-
This variant of cement is manufactured by adding approximately 0.025–0.1% of air entraining agents to the ordinary Portland cement clinker mix. Air entraining agents are generally composed of wood resins, calcium agents, vegetable oils and animal fats.10. Hydrophobic cement:-
This variant of cement is manufactured by grinding ordinary Portland cement clinkers with water and oleic acid or stearic acid. These acids help to form a water repellent film around the cement particle ultimately increasing the shelf life of the cement. The film is broken when the cement and aggregate are mixed together at the mixer all the while exposing the cement particles for normal hydration to occur.11. Expansive cement:-
This type of cement is manufactured by adding stabilizers which aid in stabilizing the cement for expansion. Such a variant of cement is achieved by adding 8-20% of sulphoaluminate & 15% of stabilizer material to the ordinary Portland cement clinker.
Concrete made up of OPC tends to shrink during the setting process due to loss of free water. Concrete also shrinks continuously for a long period of time. Cement used for grouting purposes should not shrink or change volume. To overcome this problem, we use expansive cement which doesn’t show any change in volume after hardening.12. White Cement:-
This type of cement is obtained by lowering the content of iron oxide in the Ordinary Portland cement. The strength and durability is the same as OPC. This type of cement is used for the purpose of joining tiles and other interior works.13. Waterproof portland cement:-
This type of cement is manufactured by adding small percentages of metal sereates in OPC cement during the grinding process. This type of cement is used in building foundations, water tanks & other water retaining structures.
Tansen cement is proud to manufacture one of the Best Cement in Nepal