Biography of Albert Einstein
by Sushil Sharma
Posted: Jan 29, 2019
Posted: Jan 29, 2019
- On 30 April 1905, Einstein completed his thesis, with Alfred Kleiner, Professor of Experimental Physics as a result, Einstein was awarded a PhD by the University of Zurich with his dissertation "A New Determination of Molecular Dimensions".
- In that same year, which has been called Einstein's miracle year, he published four ground breaking papers, on the photoelectric effect Brownain motion, special relativity, and the equivalence of mass and energy, which to bring him to the notice of the academic world, at the age of 26.
- By 1908, he was recognized as a leading scientist and was appointed lecturer at the University of Bern. Einstein became a full professor at the German Charles-Ferdinand University in Prague in April 1911, accepting Austrian citizenship in the Austo-Hungarian Empire to do so.
- On 2 July 1913, he was voted for membership in the Prussian Academy of Sciences in Berlin. Max Planck and Walther Nernst visited him the next week in Zurich to persuade him to join the academy, additionally offering him the post at the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Physics.
- He was officially elected to the academy on 24 July, and he accepted to move to the German Empire the next year. His decision to move to Berlin was also influenced by the prospect of living near his cousin Elsa.
- He joined the academy and thus the Berlin University on 1 April 1914. As World War I broke out that year, the plan for Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Physics was aborted. The institute was established on 1 October 1917, with Einstein as its director. In 1916, Einstein was elected president of the German Physical Society (1916-1918).
- Based on calculations Einstein made in 1911, about his new theory of general relativity, light from another star should be bent by the Sun's gravity. In 1919, that prediction was confirmed by Sir Arthur Eddington during the solar eclipse of 29 May 1919.
- Those observations were published in the international media, making Einstein world famous. On 7 November 1919, the leading British newspaper The Times printed a banner headline that read: "Revolution in Science - New Theory of the Universe - Newtonian Ideas Ovethrown".
- In 1922, he was awarded the 1921 Nobel Prize in Physics "for his services to Theoretical Physics, and especially for his discovery of the law of the photoelectric effect".
- In December 1930, Einstein visited America for the second time, originally intended as a two-month working visit as a research fellow at the California Institute of Technology.
- After the national attention he received during his first trip to the US, he and his arrangers aimed to protect his privacy. Although swamped with telegram and invitations to recieve awards or speak publicly, he declined them all.
- After arriving in New York City, Einstein was taken to various places. February 1933 while on a visit to the United States, Einstein knew he could not return to Germany with the rise to power of the Nazis under Germany's new chancellor, Adolf Hitler
- Upon landing in Antwerp on 28 March, he immediately went to the German consulate and surrendered his passport, formally renouncing his German citizenship.
- In April 1933, Einstein discovered that the new German goernment had passed laws barring Jews from holding any official positions, including teaching at universities.
- A month later Einstein's works were among those targeted by the German Student Union in the Nazi book burning, with Nazi propaganda minister Joseph Goebbels proclaiming, "Jewish intellectualism is dead".
- Einstein was now without a permanent home, unsure where he would live and work, and equally worried about the fate of countless other scientists still in Germany.
- In October 1933 Einstein returned to the US and took up a position at the Institute for Advanced Study. In 1935 he arrived at the decision to remain permanently in the United States and apply for citizenship.
WORLD WAR 2
- In 1939 a group of Hungarian scientists that included physicist attempted to alert Washington to ongoing Nazi atomic bomb research.
- Hitler would be more than Willing to resort to such weapon. In July 1939, a few months before the beginning of World War 2 in Europe, Szilard and Wigner visited Einstein to explain the possibility of atomic bombs, which Einstein a pacifist, said he had ever considered.
- He was asked to lend his support by writing a letter, with szilard, to President Roosevelt, recommending the US pay attention and engage in its own nuclear weapons research.
- The letter is believed to be "arguably the key stimulus for the u.s. adoption of serious investigation into nuclear weapons. For Einstein, "was was disease and he called for resistance to war."
- On 17 April 1955, Einstein experienced internal bleeding caused by the rupture of an abdominal aortic aneurysm, Einstein refused surgery, saying "I want to go when I want It is tasteless to prolong life artificially. I have done my share; it is time to go. I will do it elegantly.
- He died in Princeton Hospital early the next morning at the age of 76, having continued to work until near the end.
- During the autopsy, the pathologist of Princeton Hospital, Thomas Stoltz Harvey, removed Einstein's brain fro preservation without the permission of his family, in the hope that the neuroscience of the future would be able to discover what made Einstein so intelligent.
- Throughout his life Einstein published hundreds of books and articles. He published more than 30 scientific papers and 150 non-scientific ones. Einstein's intellectual achievements and originality have made the word "Einstein"synonymous with "genius."
- In his paper on mass-energy equivalence, Einstien produced E=mc2 form his special relativity equations.
- Einstein received numerous awards and honors and in 1922 he was awarded the 1921 Nobel Prize in Physics "for his services to Theoretical Physics and especially for his discovery of the law of the photoelectric effect".
- None of the nominations in 1921 met the criteria set by Alfred Nobel, so the 1921 proze was carried forward and awarded to Einstein in 1922
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