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Confirmation Review Report

Author: Janet Peter
by Janet Peter
Posted: May 10, 2019
academic performance

The literature review section revolving around the impact of breakfast on student performance has is not characterized by a lot of literature in the field. Breakfast intake has been associated with an assortment of positive impacts regarding the quality of diet, lifestyle attributes, and micronutrient intake. When it comes to the subject of academic performance, breakfast intake has been thought to improve student learning on the issues of behavior, cognitive as well as school performance. It, however, follows that due to the less research that has been conducted in the area, only a few studies are centering on the impact that breakfast has on academic performance. The implication, therefore, is that the literature is going to be conducted via the online assessment of article that has been published from the year 2008-2017 and index in OVID, CINHAL, SCOPUS, EMBASE databases. The following study will be essential to the establishment of the significance that breakfast intake has on student’s academic performance. The core objective of this literature review is going to include:

  • An examination of the prevailing evidence relating to the significance of breakfast in the academic performance of students

The PICO Table

The Impact of Breakfast on Student's Academic Performance at School Age (16-18 Year Old) At Saudi Arabia Tabouk City)


Student Age 16-18 Year Old


Breakfast intake


Failing to take breakfast


Improving student performance

Strategy of Implementing the Literature Review

The objective as well as the aims of the study are diverse and thus require the use of the systematic approach to the assessment and indemnification of the assortment of studies that are going be used. Further, the literature review is going to employ the scoping review strategy as a way of ensuring there is a comprehensive assessment of the relevant studies in the area of impact of breakfast on the academic performance of students. The strategy will further play a significant role in highlighting the possible gaps in these studies. 60 articles assessing the impact that glucose has on the academic performance of students between the ages of 16 and 18 were used in the study.

While most of the systemic reviews addressing specific questions are based on an established set of implications, the use of scoping reviews allows the mapping of the main precepts that inform the study area, the main sources as well as the accessible evidence supporting the study topic. The main structures that can be used in implementing a scoping review include;

  1. Framing the study questions
  2. Assessing for the relevant studies
  3. Selecting the study
  4. Data charting
  5. Collating, summarizing and reporting the results

In the assessment of the relevant studies that were reviewed in this study, a three-phase strategy was adopted

  • The first phase encompassed the use of Google scholar and PubMed to carrying a limited search via the use of key words as "breakfast and nutrition," "student academic performance," "breakfast consumptions by students," "nutrition value of breakfast" and "impact of nutrition on academic performance." The search was preceded by an assessment of the text words in the titles of the evaluated studies, their abstracts, introduction as well as the index terms that had been used in the description of these articles.
  • The second phase entailed additional research via the use of the established keywords across the major databases as OVID, CINHAL, SCOPUS, and EMBASE from 2008 to 2017. The emphasis, in this case, was paid to the subject headings that had been used. The terms used in the search were linked with Boolean operator ‘OR’ between the words.
  • In the third phase, 9871 studies were exported to the referenced, leading to the generation of the reference lists that were consequently scanned against the eligibility criteria to establish the relevant studies.

The Study Eligibility Criteria


Inclusion criteria

Exclusion criteria

Type of participants

The studies were limited to the results that reflected on both children and adolescents between the age of 16 and 18

Students past the age of 18 years

Type of interventions

Online portable resources that have school dietary assessment results and reporting the performance component

Any online resources designed for in school use and that cannot be accessed to indicate the interventions under consideration

Outcome measures

Any educational outcomes linked to impact of diet and students performance

Any outcome that are not related to diet and student performance

Study design

The study designs that have been published in English language.

Descriptive reports as well as discussion articles that do not offer any form of indication of whether there was variation in student academic performance due to breakfast intake or changes in nutrition.

Adolphus, Lawton & Dye, (2013), in their article argue that it has become a widely appreciated fact that breakfast is the most important meal of the day. Further, children who consume breakfast occasionally have been proved as exhibiting a higher likelihood of having better nutrient intakes than their counterparts who do not consume breakfast. Breakfast intake has also been acknowledged as having a significant contribution to the daily micronutrient intake in addition to the assertion that breakfast consumption has been regarded to be a positive contributor to the maintenance of a healthy body mass index.

Holcombe, (2010), the introduction of breakfast programs in schools does not only have a positive impact on the nutrition and physical health of the children but also enhances their academic success. They support their position by arguing that such a program enhances the children’s nutrient consumption, which has been established to promote their school performance. Access to breakfast programs in schools has been known to enhance student’s ability to improve school attendance by the students, as well as punctuality. It additionally has been shown to improve student’s disciplines and cognitive achievements; all attributes that are closely associated with improved performance.

Basch, C. E. (2011), contend the impact that breakfast consumption on the diverse learning outcomes is an issue that has been under investigation for a long period, which improvement in academic performance being the prevailing factor. Research conducted by neuroscientists indicates that the molecular and cellular process dietary behavior impact the neuronal activity as well as cellular processes impact cognitive functions. Research indicates that skipping breakfast undermines a student’s connectedness with the teachers and their peers. Extreme hunger in the school-based children has been linked to depression and anxiety (Taylor, Bogdan & DeVault, 2015). Further, the issue of absenteeism is addressed with the introduction of school feeding program will promote the rate of school attendance especially for the low-income families.


Basch, C. E. (2011). Breakfast and the achievement gap among urban minority youth. Journal of School Health, 81(10), 635-640.

Holcombe, E. (2010). The impact of participation in the school breakfast program on children's school outcomes.

Liyanagunawardena, T. R., Adams, A. A., & Williams, S. A. (2013). MOOCs: A systematic study of the published literature 2008-2012. The International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning, 14(3), 202-227.

Sampasa-Kanyinga, H., & Hamilton, H. A. (2017). Eating breakfast regularly is related to higher school connectedness and academic performance in Canadian middle-and high-school students. Public Health, 145, 120-123.

Taylor, S. J., Bogdan, R., & DeVault, M. (2015). Introduction to qualitative research methods: A guidebook and resource. John Wiley & Sons.

Carolyn Morgan is the author of this paper. A senior editor at Melda Research in Research Paper Writing Service. if you need a similar paper you can place your order for a custom research paper from A+ Affordable Paper Writing Service.

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"Janet Peter is the Managing Director of a globally competitive essay writing company.

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