Applications of Nanomaterials
Posted: Dec 04, 2019
Application of nanomaterials in the field of catalysts
Nanomaterials play an important role in many chemical catalytic fields, which can control reaction time and increase reaction efficiency and speed. As catalysts, nanomaterials have many advantages. Nanomaterials have large specific surface area and many surface active centers, all of which provide the necessary conditions for catalysis. At the same time, the volume effect and surface effect of nanomaterials determine its good catalytic activity and catalytic selectivity. Compared with the general catalyst, nanocatalyst can greatly improve the reaction efficiency, and it reacts 10 to 15 times faster than the general catalyst. The metal nanoparticles can be directly used as catalysts, and the catalysts are mainly nano powders of noble metals such as Ag, Pd, Pt, Rh, etc., and base metals such as Fe, Co, Ni, and the like. The use of metal microparticles as a catalyst has good selectivity, and this selectivity is related to the particle size of the nanoparticles. In addition to chemical catalysis, photocatalysis and thermal catalysis of semiconductor nanoparticles have attracted widespread attention and have been applied in catalytic degradation of organic matter.
Application of nanomaterials in the preparation of new engineering materials
The small size effect of the nano material allows it to be sintered at a lower temperature to obtain a sintered body with excellent texture, and can maintain its good performance without any additives, so it can be used to prepare sintered materials at low temperature. At the same time, these nanomaterials can be used as activators in the relevant sintering process, which plays an important role in accelerating the sintering process, shortening the sintering time and lowering the sintering temperature. The small size effect and surface effect of nanomaterials not only reduce their melting point but also reduce the phase transition temperature, so that the melting point and phase transition temperature of different materials can be closer to each other and solid state reactions can be performed at low temperatures. Different kinds of nano-ceramic powders can be used to produce nano-ceramics with dense texture and excellent performance at low temperature and low pressure. Nano-ceramics have excellent properties such as good plasticity, high hardness, high temperature resistance, wear resistance, high susceptibility and coercivity, and low magnetic loss.
Application of nanomaterials in the field of magnetic materials
Magnetic materials are key materials for the storage, processing and transmission of information. In recent years, with the rapid development of information, the performance of recording medium materials, especially the recording density, has been improved. The recording medium material with high recording density is closely related to ultrafine particles. If ultrafine particles are used as the recording unit, the recording density can be greatly improved. Because the nano magnetic particles have a single magnetic domain structure and high coercive force, using it to make a magnetic recording material can improve the signal-to-noise ratio of the magnetic recording material, thereby improving image quality.
Application of nanomaterials in the field of coatings
Due to its unique photocatalytic function, nanomaterials have a strong decomposition and elimination effect on toxic gases in the air. The low surface tension, strong adhesion, and excellent self-cleaning function make the nano-materials suitable for exterior wall coatings of buildings. Because the size of nanometers is much smaller than the wavelengths of infrared and radar waves, the transmission of nanoparticles to these waves is much stronger than that of conventional materials, and the reflectance of infrared and radar waves is greatly reduced. Therefore, nanomaterials have an absorption effect on infrared and radar waves, so they can be used as coating materials for aircraft and submarines. Nano-coating will bring a new technological revolution to the coating technology, and will also promote the research and development of composite materials.
Application of nanomaterials in the development of new energy
The rational use of traditional energy sources and the development of new energy sources are long-term and important tasks. In recent years, research on the development of nano-purifiers and nano-combustion aids that can be used for coal and oil combustion, and the use of nanotechnology to extract useful substances in coal ash have obtained preliminary results and are expected to be industrialized. Loading precious metals on the surface of nano-semiconductor materials can double the efficiency of photodecomposing water, which will greatly promote the photochemical storage of solar energy. The photoelectric conversion efficiency of the new type solar cell made of semiconductor nanomaterials is extremely high, and it can work normally even in rainy days.
In addition to the above applications, nanomaterials have good application prospects in the fields of printing inks, electronic pastes, sensors, and artificial intelligence. For example, the color of a nanoparticle varies depending on the particle size, and the smaller the particle size, the darker the color. Therefore, non-toxic nanoparticles with appropriate and uniform particle size can be used to prepare printing inks of various colors to replace traditional inks configured with chemical pigments, and this is very beneficial for improving the printing operation conditions, preventing the ink from harming the human body and protecting the environment.
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